TheInner Canyon Tour to the Bottom departs from
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or Flagstaff, Arizona Here’s the ideal tour for travelers who want to experience theGrand Canyon from top to bottom AND stay on solid ground.On the Inner Canyon Tour, you’ll experience some of Arizona’s living history from the rim to the river – and places in between. Click Here to learn more about the Inner Canyon to the Bottom.
Reservations please call: 1-928-779-31631-928-779-3163
The Canyon Vistas Ride is a four-mile, two-hour mule ride that travels directly along the east rim of the canyon. The entire adventure to include travel time to and from the barn is 3 hours. The Mule Wranglers that lead the trip will stop six times along the trail to provide interpretive information about the geologic formations, cultural history, the area’s native people, the surrounding forest and more. There are up to 20 riders per departure. Water and water bottles are included. Rain jackets are provided.
Reservations please call: 1-888-297-2757 or (303) 297-27571-888-297-2757 or (303) 297-2757
The mules are carefully selected for strength, endurance, and temperament. They are thoroughly trained by the guides so that they are well adapted to the unique environment and work situation of the Grand Canyon. Although we have 80 years of experience in working with mules, they are animals and not always predictable. The restrictions we place on the rides are intended for safety and to avoid distracting or disturbing the mules. There is always an element of risk due to trail conditions, other trail users, and sudden appearances of wildlife native to the Grand Canyon. While serious accidents or injury seldom occur, risk is minimized by carefully following the Trail Guide’s instructions.
Many riders will experience a greatdeal ofsoreness after having been on mules in the Grand Canyon all day. It is suggested that you not plan heavy activities for the day after your mule ride.
Mule Rides are available on a limited basis.You should make your reservations for the overnight tour 13 months in advance on the first day of the month you want the tour. Canyon Vistas rides should be reserved 6 to 8 months in advance.
For Mule Rides, Please Contact: Xanterra Grand Canyon National Park Lodges Central Reservations at: 1-888-297-2757 -OR- 1-303-297-2757 Int’l Toll
The detection of somatic point mutations is a key component of cancer genomic research, which has been rapidly developing since next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology revealed its potential for describing genetic alterations in cancer. We present MuSE, a novel approach to mutation calling based on the F81 Markov substitution model for molecular evolution
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, which models the evolution of the reference allele to the allelic composition of the matched tumor and normal tissue at each genomic locus. To improve overall accuracy, we further adopt a sample-specific error model to identify cutoffs, reflecting the variation in tumor heterogeneity among samples.
Source File: https://github.com/danielfan/MuSE
Linux Binary File:
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After downloading the source file, for Unix-like operating systems please type the following commands sequentially in the command line to generate the executable:
For Windows, please install Cygwin (
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) first, which provides functionality similar to a Linux distribution on Windows. The following procedures are the same as above.
MuSE is comprised of two steps, which requires
The first step, ‘MuSE call’, takes as input (1) and (2). The BAM files require aligning all the sequence reads against the reference genome using the Burrows-Wheeler alignment tool (BWA), with either the backtrack or the maximal exact matches (MEM) algorithm
. In addition, the BAM files need to be processed by following the Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK) Best Practices
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that include marking duplicates, realigning the paired tumor-normal BAMs jointly and recalibrating base quality scores.
To speed up ‘MuSE call’, we recommend splitting the WGS data into small blocks (<50Mb) by using the provided option either ‘-r’ or ‘-l’, and concatenating all the output files by the Linux command CAT.
The second step, ‘MuSE sump’, takes as input the output file from ‘MuSE call’ and (3). We provide two options for building the sample-specific error model. One is applicable to WES data (option ‘-E’), and the other to WGS data (option ‘-G’).
The following commands briefly illustrate how to use MuSE. As to the preparation of BAM files, please refer to the first part, PRE-PROCESSING, of the Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK) Best Practices (
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